Africa Now December 14, 2016
Summary—Topic and Guests: Africa and The International Criminal Court. Guests: Mr. Nii Akuetteh, independent Africa policy analyst and former the Executive Director of African Immigrants Caucus; and Dr. Gnaka Lagoke, professor of African history and world history in the Department of History and Political Science at Montgomery College (Maryland) and The Revival of PanaAfricanism Forum.
Africa Now December 7, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Gambia Votes Out Jammeh; and Confronting AIDS. Guests: Mr. Pa Samba Jow, the spokesperson for the Democratic Union of Gambian Activists (DUGA); and Mr. Matthew Kavanagh, Senior Policy Analyst at Health GAP and a Benjamin Franklin Fellow at the University of Pennsylvania.
Africa Now November 30, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: The Legacy of Fidel Castro in the African World; and Haiti Votes. Guest: Mr. Bill Fletcher, Jr., Writer/Activist, former President of TransAfrica Forum; and Ms. Nicole Phillips, Esq. Staff Attorney, at the Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti (IJDH).
Africa Now November 23, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: The African World and the Next U.S. Administration; and Imagining Africa at The Center. Guest: Ms. Eve Ferguson, Co-Chair, Local Arrangements Committee of the African Studies Association 2016 Annual Meeting; Mr. Nii Akuetteh is an independent Africa policy analyst based in Washington, DC and is the former the Executive Director of African Immigrants Caucus; and Dr. Clarence Lusane is Professor in and chairs the Department of Political Science at Howard University.
Africa Now November 16, 2016
Summary—Topic and Guest: #FeesMustFall Movement Beyond the Campus. Guest: Ms. Kealeboga Mase Ramaru, organizer with #RhodesMustFall at the University of Cape Town and the Deputy Head for the Western Cape office at Equal Education.
Africa Now November 9, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Thomas Sankara's Pan Africanist Legacy in Today's Movements. Guests: Ms. Shelley Green of Pan-African Community Action; Dr. Msia Kibona Clark, Assistant Professor in the Department of African Studies at Howard University; Ms. Aline Piva of Council on Hemispheric Affairs; and Ms. Mary-Alice Waters of Socialist Workers Party and Pathfinder Press.
Africa Now November 2, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Forced from Their Homeland for A U.S. Military Base: The Plight of Chagossians; and Burkina Faso Two Years After Popular Uprising. Guests: Ms. Sabrina Jean, Chair of Chagos Refugees Group UK; and Mr. Paul Sankara, is a Member of the Committee against Impunity in Burkina Faso.
Africa Now October 26, 2016
Summary—Topic and Guest: Haiti Beyond Hurricane Matthew with Ms. Nicole Phillips, Esq. Staff Attorney, at the Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti (IJDH).
Africa Now October 19, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: State of Emergency in Ethiopia and Grassroots Look at the #FeesMustFall Movement. Guests include: Mr. Girma Tadesse of Oromo Advocacy Alliance; and student leader from South Africa Ms. Mase Maramu.
Africa Now October 12, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: African World's History and Culture on the U.S. National Mall; and Unrest in Ethiopia. Guests include: Dr. Johnnetta Betsch Cole, Director of the Smithsonian National Museum of African Art; and Mr. Adotei Akwei, Managing Director of Government Relations for Amnesty International USA.
Africa Now October 5, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Land Grab in Africa; Hispanic Heritage Month; and South African Musical Group Mafikizolo. Guests include: Mr. Bahati Jacques, Policy Analyst at Africa Faith and Justice Network; Mr. Oscar Fernandez, Host and Producer of Latino Media Collective on WPFW; Mr. Roland Roebuck, Afro-Latino activist; and Mafikizolo, the duo consisting of Mr. Theo Kgosinkwe and Ms. Nhlanhla Nciza.
Africa Now September 28, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Current Political Challenges in the DRC with Mr. Maurice Carney Executive Director of Friends of the Congo and Mr. Kambale Musavuli, Student Coordinator and National Spokesperson for the Friends of the Congo.
Africa Now September 21, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Part 2 of The Role of the Diaspora in Current African World Movements; and Update on Situation in the DRC. Guests include Dr. Josh Myers, Assistant Professor in Africana Studies in the Department of Afro-American Studies at Howard University; and Mr. Maurice Carney Executive Director of Friends of the Congo.
Africa Now September 14, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: The Role of the Diaspora in Current African World Movements; Teaching Africa; and International Decade for People of African Descent with Dr. Corey D. B. Walker, Dean of The College of Winston-Salem State University; Ms. Paulette Mpouma, Committee Leader of Teaching Africa Day and the creator of The Africa Memory Game; and Mr. Akufuna (Funa) Ngonda, Africa Now!’s Research Fellow Volunteer.
Africa Now September 7, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: The Ousting of Dilma Rousseff, and African Heritage Month with Mr. Paulo Rogério Nunes Afro-Brazilian activist, and Mr. Daniel Koroma is Community Outreach Manager, Liaison to African and Caribbean Communities Office of Community Partnerships, Montgomery County, Maryland.
Africa Now August 31, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Africans Rising, and Colombian Peace Deal with Mr. Kumi Naidoo, Launch Director of Africans Rising for Justice, Peace and Sustainable Development and Ms. Gimena Sánchez-Garzoli, Senior Associate for the Andes at the Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA). Also featuring a commentary by Dr. Msia Kibona Clark of Howard University in which she connects the Fees Must Fall, Rhodes Must Fall and Black Lives Matter Movements.
Africa Now August 24, 2016
Topics and Gusts: Building Movements in South Africa; and What Does it Mean to Be African; and Sonia Sanchez with Mr. Andile Mngxitama, the National Convenor of the Black First Land First Movement in South Africa.
Africa Now August 17, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Crisis in South Sudan and African World Films with Mr. Nii Akuetteh, Executive Director of African Immigrants Caucus, and Co-Founders and Co-Founders of of the African Diaspora International Film Festival Diarah N’Daw-Spech and Reinaldo Spech.
Africa Now August 10, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: The Rights to Freedom of Assembly and Association in the U.S., and Reparations in Jamaica with with Mr. Maina Kiai, UN Special Rapporteur and filmmaker Ms. Karen Marks Mafundikwa.
Africa Now August 3, 2016
Summary—Topic and Guest: Political Tension in the DRC featuring Mr. Maurice Carney, co-founder and Executive Director of Friends of the Congo.
Africa Now July 27, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Assessing the International AIDS Conference and Journey to South Africa with Mr. Stroebel Bekker, Vice President Sales for South African Airways in North America; Mr. Matthew Kavanagh, Senior Policy Analyst at Health GAP; Mr. Kenneth Mwehonge of HEPS-Uganda; Mr. Bonginkosi Mthembu, Prevention and Treatment Literacy Coordinator, Treatment Action Campaign; and Ms. Lotti Rutter of the Treatment Action Campaign.
Africa Now July 20, 2016
Summary—Topic and Guest: Reflections on Africa's Deep Impact on Diasporic Cultural Production with Brother Ah; Robert Northern (aka Brother Ah) is the musical director of the World Music Ensemble and The Sounds of Awareness Ensemble and Host of WPFW's The Collectors.
Africa Now July 13, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Dissecting Haiti at A Political Crossroads and the Colombian Ceasefire Agreement featuring Mr. Jean-Claude Fignolé, Oxfam America Program Director in Haiti, and Ms. Gimena Sánchez-Garzoli, Senior Associate for the Andes at the Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA).
Africa Now July 6, 2016
Summary—Topic and Guests: The Enduring Rhythm of Ngugi wa Thiong’o, featuring a speech by Professor Ngugi wa Thiong’o entitled "Re-Membering Africa: Retrieval and Exchange of African Memory," and Dr. Josh Meyers of the Department of Afro-American Studies at Howard University where he teaches Africana Studies.
Special June 29, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Special The Right to Migrate produced by Africa Now! Latin Media Collective, and Shay wa Nana. Guests--Ms. Cueeva Bitterly, refugee activist in Ireland; Dr. Alvaro Huerta, professor of urban and regional planning and ethnic & women's studies at California State Polytechnic University in Pomona; Ms. Nunu Kidane, Director of Priority Africa Network, and the Coordinator of Africa Moves; Ms. Tia Oso is the National Organizer for Black Alliance for Just Immigration (BAJI); and Dr. Tasneem Siddiqui, an incoming visiting assistant professor in the Department of History, Politics, and Social Justice at Winston-Salem State University.
Africa Now June 22, 2016
Summary-Topics and Guests: The U.S. Citizens Who Are Not Treated as Citizens, and Muhammad Ali and the Struggle in Brazil with Dr. Jack S. Monell, Associate Professor of Justice Studies at Winston Salem State University, and Mr. Dave Zirin is the sports Editor for the Nation, Co-Host with Etan Thomas of The Collusion on WPFW.
Africa Now June 15, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Soweto Uprising At 40 and Beyond with Ms. Cecelie Counts, of Southern Africa Support Project (SASP). Ms. Counts is an anti-apartheid activist who has been a political activist and community organizer for more than 40 years.
Africa Now June 8, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Commemorating Caribbean American Heritage Month with Films; and Stepping's Story, Art and Sound. Mr. C. Brian Williams is the Founder and Executive Director of Step Afrika! Ms. Patricia Moran of Caribbean Association of World Bank IMF Staff (CAWI).
Africa Now Jun 1, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Palestine, Black Solidarity, and the Role of Hip Hop. Dr. Christopher Emdin who is an Associate Professor in the Department of Mathematics, Science and Technology at Teachers College, Columbia University talks to Guest Host student-activist, Jaquial Durham.
Africa Now May 25, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: A Look at the AU's proposal for the Sixth Region; and the Implications of North Carolina's Affordable Education Act. Mr. James Early, Board Member of the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS).
Africa Now May 18, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Music Is the Message—Hugh Masekela; and the Sounds of the Soweto Uprising. Mr. Hugh Masekela South African musician and cultural activist.
Africa Now May 11, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Brazil—Forces Behind the Political Crisis. Ms. Edna Thomaz Rodrigues, an Afro-Brazilian social activist and is President of African Diaspora Ancestral Commemoration Institute (ADACI)—Brazil. Dr. Mariana Joffily, Associate Professor, History Department, University of Santa Catarina, Brazil.
Africa Now May 4, 2016
Summary--Topics and Guest: Missing Chibok Girls--Two Years and Counting; and History of Boko Haram. Bishop Matthew Hassan Kukah, the Catholic Bishop of Sokoto; Ms. Molade Alawode, Co-Founder and Communications Director Act4Accountability; Congresswoman Frederica S. Wilson; Congressman George Kenneth Butterfield Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus; and one of the escaped Chibok school girls.
Africa Now April 27, 2016
Summary—Topic and Guest: South Africa Freedom Day and Beyond featuring Mr. Reed Kramer, co-founder and Chief Executive Officer of AllAfrica Global Media.
Africa Now April 20, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Egypt Five Years After Mubarak; and The Realities of Cuba-U.S. Relations. Dr. Abderrahim Foukara, is Regional Director for the Americas and Host of Min Washington (From Washington) at Al Jazeera Media Network. Mr. Netfa Freeman, Events Coordinator, Institute for Policy Studies and Co-Host and Co-Producer of Voices with Vision on WPFW. Also featured is a portion of the speech by Mr. Miguel Fraga First Secretary at Cuban Embassy at the event “Cuba-U.S. Relations: Where it Stands Today.” Today Africa Now! commemorates National Poetry Month with a poem from Professor Fahima Seck entitled “Havana Sky.”
Africa Now April 13, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Stateless Dominicans, Filmfest DC, Poetry & Jazz. Mr. Beneco Enecia, Director of the Center for Sustainable Development (CEDESO). Mr. Tony Gittens, the Founder and Director of Filmfest DC.
Africa Now April 6, 2016
Topics and Guests: Libya—Possibility of Another Western Intervention; and Cultural Milestones in April: National Poetry Month and Celebrating the Spirit of Jazz in Cape Town. Ms. Phyllis Bennis, a Fellow at the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS). Ms. Katea Stitt, Interim Program Director and Host of Wednesday’s Morning Brew at WPFW 89.3FM in Washington, DC. Also featured was the poetry of Ms. Kadija Sessay, British literary activist, publisher and managing editor of the magazine Sable LitMag.
Africa Now March 30, 2016
Topics and Guests: Bridges Connecting the African World; Women's Advancement in Cuba Since the Revolution; and the Cape Town Jazz Festival?. Mr. Jesus "Chucho" Garcia, General Consul of Venezuela in New Orleans. Professor Caridad Morales Nussa, an ESL & Spanish Professor at Towson University. Information was provided about the Cape Town International Jazz Festival which takes place April 1st and April 2nd.
Africa Now March 23, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: Impact of the Colombian Peace Talks on the Afro-Descendant and Indigenous Communities; Queen Nanny--Spirit of Liberation. Mr. Roy Anderson, filmmaker, Writer/Director/Producer of Queen Nanny: Legendary Maroon Chieftainess. Ms. Gimena Sánchez-Garzoli, Senior Associate for the Andes and leading Colombia human rights advocate at the Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA). A musical tribute to Phife Dawg (Malik Isaac Taylor) of A Tribe Called Quest, who transitioned to be with the ancestors today, Wednesday, March 23, 2016.
Africa Now March 16, 2016
Summary—Topics and Guests: External Funding and Interventions of African Elections—The Case of Malawi; Hip Hop and Pan-Africanism; and Celebrating Women’s History featuring Mr. Rafiq Hajat, Executive Director of Institute for Policy Interaction (IPI) and a prominent human rights activist in Malawi; Dr. Msia Kibona Clark, Assistant Professor in the Department of African Studies at Howard University; and Women’s History Month Profile focusing on the work and philosophies of Yaa Asantewaa.
Africa Now March 9, 2016
Topics and Guests: The Legacy of Ousmane Sembene; Celebrating Women’s History Month; The Work of an African Woman Filmmaker; and New African Films in the DMV featuring Dr. Samba Gadjigo a professor of French specializing in French-speaking Africa and African cinema, at Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts; Ethiopian filmmaker Ms. Hermon Hailay director of the film Price of Love; Ms. Kishere Mbuya CEO of afrikafé; and Women’s History Month Profile focusing on the work and philosophies of Ida B. Wells-Barnett.
Africa Now March 2, 2016
Topics and Guests: The Continued Struggle Against HIV/AIDS and Celebrating Women’s History Month featuring Mr. Maziko Matemba is Executive Director of Health N Rights Education Programme (HREP) in Blantyre, Malawi and Women’s History Month Profile focusing on the work and philosophies of Claudia Jones and Esther Cooper Jackson.
Africa Now February 24, 2016
Topics and Guests: Haiti’s Interim Government and Pending Elections; and the General Elections in Uganda featuring Dr. Frank Mugisha, Executive Director of SMUG (Sexual Minorities Uganda) and Ms. Nicole Phillips, Esq., Staff Attorney, at the Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti (IJDH).
Africa Now February 17, 2016
The Implications of the Elections in DRC on the African World
Topics and Guests: Burkina Faso Presidential and Legislative Elections; and Update on the Electoral Process in the DRC featuring Mr. Paul Sankara, a Member of the Committee against Impunity in Burkina Faso, and Mr. Kambale Musavuli, Student Coordinator and National Spokesperson for the Friends of the Congo.
Topics and Guests: Haiti’s Presidential Election; World AIDS Day; and Updates on Pope in Central African Republic, Burundi Crisis and African Refugees featuring Ms. Nicole Phillips is Staff Attorney, at the Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti (IJDH), and Mr. Nii Akuetteh, Executive Director of African Immigrant Caucus, is an independent Africa policy analyst.
Topic and Guests: Illicit Financial Flows; and Updates on Situation in Mali Following Hotel Attack and African Migrants and Refugees to Europe featuring Ms. Lucykstar Miyandazi, Africa Coordinator of Tax Power Campaign, ActionAid (Nairobi, Kenya), Mr. Alvin Mosioma, founding Executive Director of Tax Justice Network-Africa (Nairobi, Kenya) and Mr. Mamadou Goïta, Executive Director of the Institute for Research and the Promotion of Alternatives in Development (IRPAD) in Mali.
Africa Now November 11, 2015
Topic and Guest: Black Female Identity and the Power of Images featuring Dr. Maria Merrills, Assistant Professor of Liberal Studies at Winston-Salem State University.
Africa Now November 4, 2015 Cuba’s Foreign Policy; and Fighting Poverty by Empowering Women
Summary—Topics and Guests: Cuba’s Foreign Policy; and Fighting Poverty by Empowering Women featuring Ambassador Jose Cabañas, Cuba’s Ambassador to the United States, and Ms. Selmor Mtukudzi, a Zimbabwean singer/activist.
Topics and Guests: Elections in Haiti and Tanzania; and Referendum on Presidential Term Limit in the Republic of Congo featuring Ms. Nicole Phillips, Esq. Staff Attorney, at the Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti (IJDH), Dr. Teylama Miabey, he is the National Coordinator of the National Congress for Democracy, and Mr. Deus Valentine, independent analyst.
Africa Now! October 21, 2015: The Role of the Writer in the African World As a Social Justice Advocate and As a Historian featuring E. Ethelbert Miller, writer and literary activist.
Africa Now October 14, 2015--Topics and Guests: Reflections on the Million Man March; and Miners Shot Down—Film on The Marikana Massacre. Featuring-- Mr. Netfa Freeman, Host and Producer of Voices with Vision on WPFW (Tuesdays 9:00 to 10:00AM) and Events Coordinator at Institute for Policy Studies; and filmmaker Rehad Desai director of Miners Shot Down.
Africa Now! September 30, 2015--Topics and Guests: What the Colombian Peace Talks Means for the Afro-descendant Population; and BRICS Involvement in Mozambique. Featuring: Ms. Aida Avella, Colombian politician and leader of the Patriotic Union (Union Patriotica – UP) party; Mr. Leyner Palacios, Afro-Colombian leader, victims' leader and member of CONPA, Bojayá, Chocó; Mr. Amade Suca, Country Director of ActionAid in Mozambique; and Mr. Sameer Dossani is International Advocacy Coordinator: Reshaping Global Power International at ActionAid.
Africa Now! September 23,2015--Topic and Guest: Today Africa Now! provides an update on the political crisis in Burkina Faso with Mr. Paul Sankara, Member of the Committee against Impunity in Burkina Faso.
Africa Now! September 9, 2015--Topic and Guests: Today Africa Now! highlights the Lessons of Amilcar Cabral in the Context of Today’s Struggles as we commemorate Cabral’s birthday which is on September 12 with Mr. James Early, member of the Board of Trustees of the Institute for Policy Studies and former Director of Cultural Studies and Communication at the Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies at the Smithsonian Institution.
Africa Now! September 2, 2015--Topics and Guests: Remembering the Marikana Massacre Three Years On; and African Heritage Month. Mr. Daniel Koroma, Community Outreach Manager, Liaison to African and Caribbean Communities Office of Community Partnerships, Montgomery County; Mr. Ezekiel Pajibo is a Liberian policy analyst, a human rights and economic justice activist living in South Africa; and Dr. John Trimble is an educator and activist whose numerous research interests include ‘the study and development of appropriate technology for national development in Africa.
Africa Now! September Topics and Guests: Liberation Cultural Activist Haki Madhubuti; and Pan-Africanism and Communism. In Africa Now's continuing spotlight on the International Decade for People of African Descent, which commenced January 1, 2015 and ends December 31, 2024 today the show features two writers who have connected the peoples of the African World with their writings—Dr. Haki Madhubuti and Professor Hakim Adi. Their works have highlighted the liberation struggle in the African World.
Africa Now! August 26, 2015--Topic and Guest: Assessing Black Lives Matter as a Movement or Moment with Ms. Nicole C. Lee, Esq., Human Rights Lawyer/Activist, Co-founder of the Black Movement Law Project and immediate Past President of TransAfrica.
Africa Now! August 19, 2015--Topics and Guests: AIDS Conference and What it Means for the African World; and the African World on the Big Screen with Mr. Matthew Kavanagh, Senior Policy Analyst at Health GAP and Fellow at the Leonard Davis Institute for Health Economics at University of Pennsylvania; Ms. Dazon Dixon-Diallo, Executive Director of Sister Love based in Atlanta & Johannesburg; Ms. Maureen Milanga of the AIDS Law Project and Health GAP from Nairobi, Kenya; Ms. Martha Tholanah of the International Community of Women Living with HIV, based in Harare, Zimbabwe; and Dr. Reinaldo Spech, Co-Founder and Co-Director of the African Diaspora International Film Festival.
Africa Now! August 12, 2015 Topics and Guests: Parliamentary Elections in Haiti; and Update on the Expulsion of Dominicans of Haitian Descent with expert on Haiti Ms. Melinda Miles and Ms. Genesis Aquino of Ahora/Now and Coalition of Dominicans Against Racism.
Africa Now! August 5, 2015--Topics and Guests: Update on the Continued Political Crisis in Burundi with Mr. John Manirakiza; and Acclaimed Poet and Author Lemn Sissay and Renowned Filmmaker Haile Gerima on Identity and Creativity.
Africa Now!--Topic and Guests: Dissecting U.S. President Obama’s Trip to Kenya and Ethiopia with Mr. Nii Akuetteh, Executive Director of African Immigrant Caucus, and Dr. William Minter, Editor of the online newsletter AfricaFocus.
Africa Now! July 15, 2015--Topic and Guest: Protests, Riots and the International Black Freedom Movement. Dr. Clarence Lusane, Professor of International Relations and the in-coming Chair of the Political Science Department at Howard University.
Africa Now! July 8,2015--Topics: The Plight of Tobacco Farm Workers in Malawi and Update of Ebola Crisis in West Africa. Guests: Dr. Robtel Neajai Pailey, a Liberian academic, activist and author based at SOAS, University of London. Mr. Raphael Sandramu, founder of the Tobacco and Allied Workers Union of Malawi.
Africa Now! July 1, 2015--Topic and Guest: Terrorism, White Supremacy, and Violence on African Peoples: An International Perspective with Professor Darryl Harris of Howard University's Political Science Department.
Africa Now! June 24, 2015--Topic and Guests: Expulsion of Dominicans of Haitian Descent featuring Ms. Genesis Aquino of Ahora/Now and Coalition of Dominicans Against Racism; and Mr. Yves Point-du-Jour a.k.a. Yves Dayiti, Host of WPFW’s Konbit Lakay.
Africa Now!--Topic and Guests: Hip Hop as Critical Consciousness. Dr. Jared Ball is professor at Morgan State, also with the Real News Network and is the host and producer of I Mix What I Like on WPFW on Fridays at 10:00am.
Africa Now! June 10, 2015--Topics: Afro-Cuban Poet Nancy Morejón; Musician Activist Femi Kuti; and DC Caribbean Filmfest. Guests: Mr. Femi Kuti, musician, activist; Ms. Patricia Moran, Caribbean Association of World Bank IMF Staff (CAWI); and Ms. Nancy Morejón, poet, critic and essayist.
Africa Now! June 3, 2015--Topics: Update on Political Crisis in Burundi; and Afro-Cuban Experience through the Eyes of Filmmaker Gloria Rolando. Guests: Mr. John Manirakiza, Member of Burundian Diaspora & Independent International Development Consultant; and Ms. Gloria Rolando, award-winning Afro-Cuban filmmaker.
Topics and Guests: Presidential Election in Haiti; and Upcoming Polls in the DRC. Featuring--Mr. Maurice Carney a co-founder and Executive Director of the Friends of the Congo; and Mr. Jake Johnston, is Research Associate, at the Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR).